Sunday

X Factor UK (2009) Live Show 8 Performances (28 November 2009)

X Factor UK 2009 Live Show 8

Take That & Elton John Week.

The performances must come from Take That (Part 1) & Elton John (Part 2).

Danyl Johnson - Songs - Relight My Fire - Your Song
Joseph McElderry - Songs - Could it Be Magic - Sorry Seems To Be
Lloyd Daniels - Songs - A Million Love Songs - I'm Still Standing
Olly Murs - Songs - Love Ain't Here Anymore - Night's Alright
Stacey Solomon - Songs - Rule The World - The Way You Look Tonight

Live Show 8 Performances:
Related Links:
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Asda (British Supermarket Retailer, ASDA)


ASDA Basic Facts:
  • British supermarket chain.
  • Retails - food, general merchandise, clothing, toys, books, electrical goods.
ASDA History:
  • Asda Stores Limited was founded in Leeds (in 1949) as Associated Dairies & Farm Stores Limited.
  • The Asda name occurred in 1965 following the merger of the Asquith chain of supermarkets & Associated Dairies.
  • Asda is an abbreviation of - Asquith and Dairies.
  • The dairy division was later sold in a management buyout & renamed Associated Fresh Foods.
ASDA Business Facts:
  • Asda became a subsidiary of the American retail giant Wal-Mart in 1999.
  • Asda is Wal-Mart's largest non-U.S. subsidiary
  • Asda is the second largest chain in the UK after Tesco.
  • Asda has based most of its marketing promotions on price.
  • This has lead to Asda promoting itself under the slogan Britain's Lowest Priced Supermarket.
  • Asda submits full accounts to Companies House each October.
  • Wal-Mart 'sold' Asda for £6.9 billion to their Leeds-based investment subsidiary Corinth Services Limited in August 2009.
  • This Wal-mart “group restructuring” still means Asda remains under the control of the Wal-Mart because Corinth are a subsidiary of Wal-Mart.
  • ASDA headquarters, Great Wilson Street, Leeds (pictured).
Image © Copyright RichTea (cc).

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Fish and Chip Shop (Food Retail)


Background History:
  • This food style originated in the United Kingdom.
  • The first recorded fish and chip shop was opened in London in 1860 (or 1865) by Jewish proprietor Joseph Malin.
  • Malin came upon the idea of "fish fried in the Jewish fashion", served with chips.
  • Fish and chips became a cheap food popular among the working classes in the latter 19th century following the rapid development of trawl fishing in the North Sea.
Modern History:
  • The modern fish-and-chip shop is also known as the "chippy" or "chipper" in modern British slang.
  • Historically, the smell associated with fish and chip frying led to the classification of fish-and-chip supply as an "offensive trade".
  • This stigma was only reversed during World War II, as fish and chips remained one of the few foods in the United Kingdom not subject to war-time rationing.
  • Modern fish and chip shops also sell other foods such as pies, fried chicken, saveloys, mushy peas, curry sauces etc.
Harry Ramsden & Fish-and-Chips:
  • An unpretentious fish and chip shop opened near Bradford, in Yorkshire, England in 1928.
  • The proprietor was a Harry Ramsden.
  • This little shop became a very famous fish & chip shop.
  • Harry Ramsden's is now the biggest fish and chip shop brand in the world.
Fish and Chips Popular Culture:

Image © michael ely (cc).

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Snowball (Iceball, Slushball) Earth Hypothesis


Snowball Earth Background:
  • Hypothesis that the Earth was entirely frozen over on 3 separate occasions (Marinoan, Sturtian, Kaigas) during the Cryogenian period (850-630 million years ago).
  • Evidence for the hypothesis comes from world glacial rock formations which date to the Cryogenian period.
Embryo Of An Idea By Mikhail Budyko:
  • Mikhail Budyko, a Russian climatologist, in the 1960s developed a climate model to investigate the effect of ice cover on global climate.
  • Budyko's results suggested that if ice sheets advanced far enough out of the polar regions a feedback ensued where the increased reflectiveness (albedo) of the ice led to further cooling & the formation of more ice.
  • Eventually the the entire Earth could be covered in ice and stabilized in a new ice-covered equilibrium.
  • Budyko (1969) concluded that this event could never happened, because his model suggested no way to escape from the simulated outcome. [1]
Snowball Earth Hypothesis Is Born:
  • "Snowball Earth" was first coined by Joseph Kirschvink (professor of geobiology at the California Institute of Technology) in 1992.[2]
  • The hypothesis was originally considered to help explain the apparent presence of glaciers at tropical latitudes.[3]
How did the Earth thaw out?
  • A recent report suggests that the Earth may have been more mudball than snowball.
  • It was hypothesised that CO2 levels may have risen during the snowball period, leading to a thaw in the Earth, though CO2 levels seem to have been too low for this.
  • Recent research suggests that areas with a higher level of volcanic dust or weathered rock, may have been able to absorb sunlight enough to cause a rewarming.[1]
Snowball Earth Relationship To Evolution:
  • Organism size & complexity increased markedly after the end of the Snowball Earth glaciations.
  • Evolutionary pressures may have been increased by "icehouse-hothouse" cycles, leading to multicellular organism development.
  • Fluctuations in nutrient levels and oxygen may have contributed to evolutionary selective pressures.
  • It is hypothesised that kin selection (with organ-like differentiation) may have been a driver for more complex life; this occurring at the expense of individual cell reproduction.
  • The evolutionary pressure producing high relatedness (i.e. kin selection) associated with glaciations may have helped overcome the reproductive cost of forming a complex animal.

References:
[1] - M.I. Budyko (1969). "Effect of solar radiation variation on climate of Earth". Tellus 21 (5): 611 – 1969.
[2] - Kirschvink, Joseph (1992). "Late Proterozoic low-latitude global glaciation: the Snowball Earth". in J. W. Schopf; C. Klein. The Proterozoic Biosphere: A Multidisciplinary Study. Cambridge University Press.
[3] - Harland, W.B. (1964). "Critical evidence for a great infra-Cambrian glaciation" (PDF). International Journal of Earth Sciences 54 (1): 45–61. http://www.springerlink.com/index/KW2790433113J4LX.pdf.
[4] - Dorian Abbot & Raymond Pierrehumbert (University of Chicago). Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres, DOI: 10.1029/2009jd012007, in press.

Image Credits:
Albedo effect Nasa image (public domain)
Snowball Earth by guano (cc)


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Saturday

Clairvoyant (Definition, Paranormal Practitioner)


Clairvoyant Definitions:
  • Adjective - Of or relating to clairvoyance.
  • Adjective - Having the supposed power to see objects or events that cannot be perceived by any of the senses.
  • Noun - A person, i.e. a medium, possessing the supposed power of clairvoyance.
Clairvoyant Etymology:
  • Date - 1844.
  • French, from clair clear (from Latin clarus) + voyant, present participle of voir to see, from Latin vidēre.
Purported Clairvoyants (Short List):
  • Alice A.Bailey - Author on mysticism & founder of international esoteric movement.
  • Allison DuBois - American psychic medium.
  • Anthony Carr - Canadian psychic who claims to predict the future.
  • C.W. Leadbeater - English clergyman, author & clairvoyant.
  • David Wells - British psychic medium.
  • Derek Acorah - British psychic medium & TV personality.
  • Doreen Virtue - American spiritual & psychic author.
  • Edgar Cayce - US Spiritual psychic & healer (1877-1945).
  • Irene Hughes - American psychic.
  • James Van Praagh - American psychic medium & TV personality.
  • Jeane Dixon - Celebrity astrologer & psychic (United States).
  • John Edward - American psychic medium, TV host & author.
  • John Holland - American psychic medium & psychic author.
  • JoJo Savard - Canadian psychic, astrologer & TV celebrity.
  • Kenny Kingston - American celebrity psychic.
  • Madame Blavatsky - Psychic medium, founder of the Theosophical Society.
  • Nostradamus - French prophet, seer & 16th century plague doctor (1503-1566).
  • Richard Knight - Clairvoyant & Tarot reader.
  • Rosemary Altea - Psychic and spiritual author who was born in England.
  • Rosemary Ellen Guiley - Author & paranormal investigator.
  • Sylvia Browne - American psychic.
Clairvoyant Surgery (Brighton, 1978) image by pppppkkkkk (cc)

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A Litany in Time of Plague (Poem by Thomas Nashe) 1600


Interesting Facts:
  • A Litany in Time of Plague was written by Thomas Nashe (1567-1601).
  • The poem was published in 1600, shortly before Nashe's death.
  • The poem lyric originally came from A Pleasant Comedy, Called Summer's Last Will and Testament., which was performed for the Archbishop of Canterbury in 1592.
  • The 16th century was a time of many plagues, so the sentiments of the poem would likely have been widely held in the population.
  • The litany of the poem title describes the inability to escape death - the witty, the rich, the beautiful, the strong - have no special claim to plague immunity.
  • The refrain, "I am sick, I must die. / Lord, have mercy on us, " reminds the reader to prepare for their destiny in heaven.
  • Some critics have suggested that the inevitability, & the social indifference, of death in the poem could be seen as a plague itself.
A Litany in Time of Plague

Adieu, farewell, earth's bliss;
This world uncertain is;
Fond are life's lustful joys;
Death proves them all but toys;
None from his darts can fly;
I am sick, I must die.
Lord, have mercy on us!

Rich men, trust not in wealth,
Gold cannot buy you health;
Physic himself must fade.
All things to end are made,
The plague full swift goes by;
I am sick, I must die.
Lord, have mercy on us!

Beauty is but a flower
Which wrinkles will devour;
Brightness falls from the air;
Queens have died young and fair;
Dust hath closed Helen's eye.
I am sick, I must die.
Lord, have mercy on us!

Strength stoops unto the grave,
Worms feed on Hector brave;
Swords may not fight with fate,
Earth still holds open her gate.
"Come, come!" the bells do cry.
I am sick, I must die.
Lord, have mercy on us!

Wit with his wantonness
Tasteth death's bitterness;
Hell's executioner
Hath no ears for to hear
What vain art can reply.
I am sick, I must die.
Lord, have mercy on us!

Haste, therefore, each degree,
To welcome destiny;
Heaven is our heritage,
Earth but a player's stage;
Mount we unto the sky.
I am sick, I must die.
Lord, have mercy on us!

by Thomas Nashe


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Friday

FIDE (Fédération Internationale des Échecs) World Chess Federation


FIDE General Facts:
  • The Fédération Internationale des Échecs or World Chess Federation.
  • International organization that connects the various national chess federations around the world.
  • Acts as the governing body of international chess competition.
  • Usually known as FIDE from its French acronym.
  • Its motto is Gens una sumus, meaning "We are one people".
  • FIDE controls the International Chess Elo Ratings list.
FIDE History:
  • FIDE was founded in Paris, France on July 20, 1924, as a kind of players' union.
  • Alekhine, the reigning world champion in 1928, agreed to place future matches for the world title under the auspices of FIDE.
  • Max Euwe, whilst negotiating his 1937 World Championship re-match with Alexander Alekhine, proposed that if he retained the title FIDE should manage both nomination of future challengers and also conduct the championship matches.
Chess Politics:
  • FIDE was involved in a number of controversies with the late Bobby Fischer regarding candidates matches, & subsequent defense of his world title.
  • During Max Euwe's period as president of FIDE (1970-1978) he strove to increase the number of member countries.
  • The next president, Florencio Campomanes (president 1982-1995) of the Philippines, continued the policy started by Euwe.
  • As a result of there now being alot more weak chess playing nations, it has been commented that FIDE decisions could be easily manipulated.
  • Further controversy erupted in 1992 when Kasparov & Nigel Short concluded that FIDE had failed to get them the best financial deal available & so announced that they would "play under a new body, the "Professional Chess Association" (PCA).
  • The 2 separate World Championships (FIDE & PCA) were not rejoined until 2006 when a re-unification match was played between Vladimir Kramnik & Veselin Topalov, which Kramnik won.
  • The current FIDE president is Kirsan Ilyumzhinov.
  • Kirsan Ilyumzhinov is also president of Kalmykia, an autonomous Republic in Russia.
  • FIDE has also become recognised by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) in 1999.
  • There has, however, been considerable controversy regarding the introduction of the IOC's anti-drugs rules to chess competition.
  • The implementation of IOC anti-drugs rules relates to FIDE's attempts at becoming part of the Olympic Games movement.
FIDE Presidents:
  • 19241949 - Alexander Rueb (25 years)
  • 19491970 - Folke Rogard (21 years)
  • 19701978 - Max Euwe (8 years)
  • 19781982 - Friðrik Ólafsson (4 years)
  • 19821995 - Florencio Campomanes (13 years)
  • 1995–present - Kirsan Ilyumzhinov ((14 years as of 2009)
FIDE Member Federations:
Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Aruba, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, British Virgin Islands, Brunei Darussalam, Bulgaria, Burundi, Cambodia, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, England, Estonia, Ethiopia, Faroe Islands, Fiji, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guernsey, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jersey, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macau, Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Palau, Palestine, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, San Marino, Scotland, Serbia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Somalia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Surinam, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Taiwan, Tajikistan, Thailand, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United States of America, Uruguay, US Virgin Islands, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Wales, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe.


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Barack Hussein Obama II (44th President of the United States) b. 1961


Barack Obama Demographics:
  • Name - Barack Hussein Obama II.
  • Born - August 4, 1961.
  • Birth place - Kapi'olani Maternity & Gynecological Hospital in Honolulu, Hawaii.
  • Wife - Michelle Obama (nee Robinson)
  • Children - Malia Ann (born July 4, 1998) & Natasha ("Sasha", born June 10, 2001).
  • Mother - Stanley Ann Dunham, American (of English descent) from Wichita, Kansas.
  • Father - Barack Obama, Sr., a Luo from Nyang’oma Kogelo, Nyanza Province, Kenya Colony.
  • Occupation - Current President of United States.
  • Residence - White House, Washington D.C.
Barack Obama Important Facts:
  • First African American to hold the office.
  • First US president born in Hawaii.
  • Obama was awarded the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize on October 9, 2009.
Barack Obama Early Life & Education:
  • His parents divorced in 1964.
  • Barack's mother remarried an Indonesian student Lolo Soetoro and moved to Indonesia in 1967 (after Suharto came to power).
  • From ages six to ten years, Obama attended local schools in Jakarta (Besuki Public School & St. Francis of Assisi School).
  • In 1971, he returned to Honolulu to live with his maternal grandparents (Madelyn & Stanley Armour Dunham).
  • Barack attended Punahou School (private college preparatory school) from the fifth grade until high school graduation in 1979.
  • Obama moved to Los Angeles in 1979 to attend Occidental College & then after two years transferring to Columbia University (New York City).
  • His Columbia University major was in political science (with a specialization in international relations), graduating with a B.A. in 1983.
Barack Obama the Chicago Community Activist:
  • Obama moved to Chicago to take up a post as director of the Developing Communities Project (DCP).
  • He worked there as a community organizer from June 1985 to May 1988.
  • During Barack's years as the DCP's director, the staff level grew from 1 - 13 people.
  • Obama also worked for the Gamaliel Foundation.
  • In 1988, he traveled to Europe and then to Kenya (meeting his father's relatives for the first time).
Barack Obama At Harvard Law School:
  • Obama started at Harvard Law School in late 1988.
  • At the end of his first year he was selected as an editor of the Harvard Law Review.
  • He was elected president of the Harvard Law Review in his second year.
  • Graduated with a Juris Doctor (J.D.) magna cum laude from Harvard in 1991.
Barack Obama Legal & Academic Life:
  • He worked as a civil rights attorney in Chicago.
  • Obama taught constitutional law at the University of Chicago Law School (1992-2004).
Barack Obama Political Career:
  • Obama served three terms in the Illinois Senate from 1997 to 2004.
  • Victory in the March 2004 Democratic primary election for the United States Senator from Illinois.
  • Delivered a televised keynote address at the Democratic National Convention in July 2004.
  • Obama won election to the U.S. Senate in November 2004.
  • Junior United States Senator from Illinois from January 2005 until November 2008 (he resigned after his election to the presidency).
  • His run for presidency started in February 2007.
  • Beat Hillary Clinton for the Democratic party nomination for presidency.
  • Defeated Republican nominee John McCain in the 2008 election.
  • Obama was inaugurated as president on January 20, 2009.

Image by √oхέƒx™ (cc)

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Dubai (State of United Arab Emirates)


Dubai Geography:
  • Dubai (Arabic: دبيّ‎).
  • One of the 7 emirates.
  • The most populous state of the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
  • Located along the southern coast of the Persian Gulf on the Arabian Peninsula.
  • Dubai Municipality is sometimes called Dubai state to distinguish it from the emirate.
  • Dubai has the largest population and is the second largest emirate by area, after Abu Dhabi.
  • Dubai lies directly within the Arabian Desert.
Dubai Climate:
  • Hot arid climate with very hot summers (ave highs around 40 °C).
  • Winters are warm and short.
Dubai History:
  • The first recorded mention of Dubai is in 1095.
  • This was from the "Book of Geography" by the geographer Abu Abdullah al-Bakri.
  • Gaspero Balbi (venetian pearl merchant) visited the area in 1580 and mentioned Dibei regarding its pearling industry.
  • The first documented records of the town of Dubai come from 1799.
  • Dubai was known for its pearl industry until the 1930s, though became damaged irreparably World War I & the Great Depression (late 1920s).
Dubai Economics:
  • Main revenues are from tourism, real estate & financial services.
  • The economy was originally based on the oil industry, though petroleum and natural gas revenues now only make up ~ 5% of GDP.
  • The Dubai International Finance Centre is a landmark project to turn Dubai into a major international hub for banks and finance.
  • In 2007 was ranked 37th within the top 50 global financial cities.
  • In November 26, 2009, Dubai proposed to delay repayment of its debt.
Dubai Politics:
  • Dubai has been ruled by the Al Maktoum dynasty since 1833.
  • Dubai came under the protection of the UK by the "Exclusive Agreement" of 1892, to protect Dubai against possible attacks from the Ottoman Empire.
  • Border disputes between Abu Dhabi and Dubai were common even after the formation of the UAE.
  • A formal compromise was eventually reached in 1979 that ended disputes between the two states.
  • The current ruler is Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, who is also Prime Minister and Vice President of the UAE.

Image (top) by C. Frank Starmer (cc)
Image (bottom) by twocentsworth (cc)


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Pest House Ruins St. Helens Plague Quarantine Station (Isles of Scilly) From 1764


Pest House History:
  • The Pest House is on the uninhabited island of St. Helens (Isles of Scilly).
  • It is the ruins of a 3 roomed granite & brick building which was built in the 18th Century (1764) for the isolation of people from passing ships who were suspected of carrying the plague.
  • St Helens Pest House replaced Old Grimsby (on Tresco Island) in 1764 as the plague quarantine station.
  • In the 1760s an Act of Parliament decreed that any ship approaching the British isles via Scilly would have to abandon any of its passengers or crew who showed signs of any contagion.
  • These people had to stay in this stone quarantine station until they either died or recovered.
  • Few people recovered because the sufferers of even harmless disorders (such as rosacea, acne) had to share bedstraw with seriously contagious patients (i.e. bubonic plague or cholera).
  • The associated graveyard includes passengers from africa and asia who died at the station.
  • There is also a grave of a 27 year old naval surgeon who was sent to treat the sick and died within a week himself.
St Helens Geography:
  • Tiny uninhabited island in the Isles of Scilly.
  • The Isles of Scilly, is an archipelago of mostly unpopulated islands 30 miles off the coast of Cornwall.
Image by howzey (cc)

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Thursday

Vita Chambers (Singer From Barbados) Universal Motown Artist


Vita Chambers Demographics:
  • Name - Vita Charday Chambers.
  • Family Roots - from Barbados.
  • Occupation - Singer
Vita Chambers General Facts:
  • Former model at the Gadal Modeling Agency.
  • Constantly compared to Rihanna (also found by Evan Rogers).
Vita Chambers Musical Career:
  • First recorded with Chris Allman in the Slam City studios.
  • Now signed to Universal Motown.
  • She released 4 songs on My Space which lead to a called by Evan Rogers (who signed her after their meeting).
  • Vita has been doing promo tours in the USA, Europe.
  • Vita Chambers' recent single "Young Money" is now available on iTunes.
Vita Chambers Quotes:
"I’m pretty much that rocker-chick girl that you see on the street with that chic element that’s still rocker and very edgy."

Music Video Performances:
Vita Chambers "Young Money" Music Video (2009)


Image Credit - by Victoria Morse (cc)


Tags:
Barbados - Evan Rogers - Gadal Modeling Agency - Singer - Rihanna - Rocker-Chick - Universal Motown - Vita Chambers - Young Money

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Wednesday

Pope Clement VI (Resided Avignon) 1291-1352


Pope Clement VI Demographics:
  • Name - Pierre Roger.
  • Born - 1291 (castle of Maumont).
  • Elected Pope - May 7, 1342.
  • Consecrated - May 19, 1342.
  • Died - Dec. 6, 1352, natural causes (buried at La Chaise-Dieu monastery).
  • Father - wealthy lord of Rosiers-d'Égletons.
Pope Clement VI Basic Facts:
  • He was strongly pro-French.
  • He purchased (for 80,000 crowns, which he never paid) the sovereignty of Avignon from Queen Joanna I of Naples, whom he had absolved from of her husband's murder.
  • His physician, Guy de Chauliac, helped protect him during the Black Death of 1348-1350.
  • Clement VI was devoted to lavish living, and his inherited treasury made that lifestyle possible.
  • As a catholic pope he is claimed to have said "... lived as a sinner among sinners."
  • His grave was desecrated and his remains burned by Huguenots in 1562.
Pope Clement VI Early Life:
  • He entered the Benedictine monastery of La Chaise-Dieu, France at age 10 years.
  • Studied at the College de Sorbonne in Paris.
Pope Clement VI Religious Life:
  • Abbot of Benedictine monasteries at Fécamp & La Chaise-Dieu.
  • Subsequently archbishop of Sens & Rouen, & then a cardinal.
  • Was the 4th pope to reside in Avignon.
  • He turned down an opportunity to return the papacy to Rome.
  • Clement sponsored crusading, with a naval expedition that took control of Smyrna.
  • Smyrna was given to the Knights of St. John, and this contributed to ending pirate raids in the Mediterranean.
  • He also had a role in the Hungarian invasion of the Kingdom of Naples.
  • He was a patron of artists & scholars; with the enlargement of the papal palace, producing a center of culture.
  • He offered protection to the Jews who were under suspicion and persecution for starting the Black Death.
  • He had disputes with Edward III of England, because of the latter's encroachments on ecclesiastical jurisdiction, & also with the kings of Castile & Aragon.

Image Credit - Cameo of Pope Clement VI by PHGCOM, GNU Free Documentation License


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Lollardy (Medieval Political and Religious Movement)


Important Lollardy Facts:
  • Political and religious movement of the Lollards.
  • Present from the mid-14th century till the English Reformation.
  • Lollards were followers of the theologian John Wycliffe (pictured).
  • The Lollards demands were primarily for Western Christianity reform.
Lollardy Beliefs:
  • Originated from an interest in the writings of John Wycliffe.
  • There was no central belief system, no official doctrine, & no single authority.
  • Like most protestants they worshipped Christ in his divine nature alone.
  • They were anticlerical, in that they did not accept the corruption within the Western Church nor the divine appointment of Church leaders.
  • They also began the process of translation of the bible into the vernacular so that more of the English peasantry could read the Bible.
  • The Twelve Conclusions of the Lollards were petitioned to Parliament by posting them on the doors of Westminster Hall in February 1395.
  • They also stated that the Roman Catholic Church had been corrupted by temporal matters & its claim to be the true church was not justified by its heredity.
  • Lollards also had a tendency toward iconoclasm, particularly as icons were seen as dangerous because of the potential of leading to idolatry.
  • They also believed in a lay priesthood, and felt that confession was unnecessary as priests had no special power to absolve sins.
  • Lollards also did not believe in the practice of clerical celibacy.
  • They also denounced the ritualistic aspects of the Church such as transubstantiation, exorcism, pilgrimages, & blessings.
  • Several Lollard writings also made the claim that the Pope was the antichrist, though generally they believed that the whole papal system embodied the antichrist.
Lollardy History:
  • Lollardy was attacked as heresy from it's first beginnings.
  • There was some initial protection from John of Gaunt (and other anti-clerical nobility), who used Lollard-advocated religious reform to obtain more revenue from England’s monasteries.
  • The University of Oxford, also by protecting John Wycliffe on the grounds of academic freedom, gave some protection to their own academics.
  • Lollardy was placed under serious peril when the Peasant’s Revolt occurred in 1381, because John Ball (peasant leader) was a lollardy follower.
  • The royalty & nobility, following the Peasant's Revolt, also became concerned that Lollardy was a threat to the English social order.
  • John of Gaunt's leaving England in pursuit of the throne of Castile (through his 2nd wife) also made the Lollardy cause more vulnerable.
Religious Resistance:
  • Thomas Arundel, Archbishop of Canterbury, was fiercely resistant to Lollardy.
  • John Badby, a layman & artisan who refused to renounce his Lollard views was burnt at the stake for heresy.
Royal Resistance:
  • King Henry IV (son of John of Gaunt) passed the De heretico comburendo in 1401 which prohibited the translating or owning of the Bible & also authorised the burning of heretics at the stake.
The Lollard Knights:
  • Group of gentry active during the reign of Richard II.
  • Known for an inclination to the religious reforms of John Wycliffe.
  • Principal Knights were Sir Thomas Latimer, Sir John Trussel, Sir Lewis Clifford, Sir John Peachey, Sir Richard Storey, & Sir Reginald Hilton.
  • They were men of discretion, & rarely gave any hint of open rebellion.
  • They managed to hold important positions and not be prosecuted during their lives.
Sir John Oldcastle and Lollardy:
  • He was the basis for Falstaff in William Shakespeare's Henry IV (pictured).
  • Oldcastle was brought to trial in 1413 once his Lollardy beliefs had been uncovered.
  • He managed to escape from the Tower of London, & tried to organize a rebellion, but failed.
  • He was executed for his beliefs & crimes.
Lollardy & The English Reformation:
  • Lollards were absorbed in to the Protestantism movement during the Reformation.
  • Since Lollardy had been an underground movement for > 100 years, the extent of Lollardy & its ideas at the time of the Reformation is still uncertain.

Image Credit - Derivative work of John Wycliffe from Randy OHC (cc)
Image Credit - Falstaff by lowfatbrains (cc)


Posted by ALCHEssMIST.
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